Report on the 2nd Learning Language in Logic Workshop (LLL-01)
Lisabon, Portugal, September 13-14, 2000

Claire Nedellec


The Second Learning Language in Logic (LLL-2000) Workshop took place on 13-14 September 2000 in Lisbon, Portugal. It provided a forum for discussion on the topic of learning language in logic and brought together researchers from many subfields of AI who are working on learning from text, while emphasizing the logic-based learning techniques and algorithms.

LLL-2000 was the follow-up of the first LLL workshop, held in June 1999 in Bled, Slovenia. Just as the first LLL workshop, it attracted multi-disciplinary submissions from the three research fields, Natural Language Processing (NLP), Machine Learning and Computational Logic, demonstrating the growing interest in NLP methods based on ILP or non-classic logics, and hybrid methods. Relational learning is gaining more and more importance as a tool for data analysis in many NLP domains. Relational learning and logic-based learning prove here again their capacity to learn from complex structured linguistic resources and derive knowledge such as ontologies and grammars from corpora and explicit background knowledge.

LLL-2000 was co-organized with the 5th International Colloquium on Grammatical Inference (ICGI-2000) and the 4th Computational Natural Language Learning Workshop (CoNLL-2000) with which LLL shares strong common scientific interests in language learning. The registration to ICGI, CoNLL and LLL was a joint registration so that registrants could freely move between the three events. This triple conference attracted about 100 participants from 22 countries all over the world. The joint events and the origin of the participants provided for many exciting and fruitful interdisciplinary discussions.

The scientific program of LLL-2000 consisted of one invited talk by Joerg-Uwe Kietz on the acquisition of ontology, six paper presentations and joint sessions with ICGI and CoNLL. These included paper presentations, and an invited talk by Dan Roth about the theory and algorithmic approaches of learning in natural language. The proceedings contain the paper accompanying the invited talk as well as the papers presented at the workshop. The program and the workshop notes are available online at

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